Cyprus Science University
Plagiarism Prevention Guide

Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem that can occur at a university. This guide has been prepared to explain what Cyprus Science University students and their academic staff should pay attention to prevent plagiarism while thesis, projects and assignments are carried out within our university. Turnitin program is used to determine plagiarism or similarity rates in our university.

What is Plagiarism?

Using and presenting part of or the entire ideas, methods, data, applications, writings, shapes or works of others as if it is your own work, without citing and referencing according to the scientific rules. (APA, 2017; TÜBİTAK, 2010; YÖK, 2016).

Providing incomplete information while citing and not providing accurate and appropriate information about the citation source (Gerçek et al., 2011; İnci, 2015).

Types of Plagiarism

Strong Plagiarism:

  • Copying written, printed and electronic article and/or artwork of someone else entirely and presenting it by adopting it as your own work without citing in accordance with scientific publication rules.
  • Copying a part of written, printed and electronic article and/or artwork of someone else and presenting it by adopting it as your own work without citing in accordance with scientific publication rules.
  • Plagiarizing written, printed and electronic article and/or artwork of someone else from someone who already has plagiarized (Töreci, 2010; İnci, 2015).

Low Plagiarism:

  • Apart from presenting a part of or the entire written, printed and electronic article and/or artwork of someone else without citing in accordance with scientific publication rules, presenting it as your own work by changing it by using different words or making different sentences (İnci, 2015).

 

 

Very Low Plagiarism:

  • Quoting written, printed and electronic article and/or artwork of someone else without making a reference in your own work.
  • Presenting the information, thoughts and practices as if it is your own idea by forgetting the source (cryptomnesia-subconscious illusion) (İnci, 2015; Gören, t.y).

 

QUOTATION, PARAPHRASE, CITATION, and SHOWING REFERENCES in SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

All scientific research is based on systematic and reliable knowledge accumulation. It’s necessary to state whose information used in this context and to prevent it from appearing to belong to us. It’s obligatory to cite ideas, comments, methods, data, applications, writings, figures, works etc. as long as it belongs to others. Otherwise it means plagiarism. In this guide, the rules for quoting and citing, referencing rules, bibliographic tag order are prepared based on the rules of APA (American Psychological Association) (2020). However, some rules were adapted, especially in terms of compliance with Turkish grammar rules and ease of use by using the thesis manuals of Hacettepe University and Ankara University (Thesis Manual..., 2006; Thesis Manual..., 2004). Researchers are recommended to visit the website of APA (http://www.apastyle.org) if they encounter situations that are not covered by this guide.


General Principles to Follow in Citing and Paraphrase, and Referencing

  1. In the study, there must be a bibliography section that the sources are listed.
  2. All sources that cited, paraphrased, and quoted in the text must be included in the bibliography and referencing must be made in the text of every source in the bibliography.
  3. Every piece of work that is cited, paraphrased or referenced must be about the works the author personally read and used.
  4. In the text, every piece of work that is cited, paraphrased and referred to must be reported in accordance with the APA (American Psychological Association) Referencing Rules and the information items must be complete and accurate.
  5. The order of the sources in the bibliography and their bibliographic tag order must be in accordance with the APA (American Psychological Association) Rules and the information items within the tag must be complete and accurate.
  6. References should be included only once in each sentence.
  7. The bibliography does not give information about which information was obtained from which source. This information must be cited in the relevant place in the text by citing/referring the relevant source of information.
  8. The facts that are known by everyone (7 days a week, 24 hours a day), like Ataturk the first president of the Republic of Turkey, are not needed to be specified. However, it can be difficult to assess what is covered by general information. Since the content of general knowledge may vary from discipline to discipline, it may be difficult for the researcher to decide what should be evaluated within the scope of general knowledge in a discipline that is not known. In such cases, referencing should be preferred as it will protect the researcher from doing something ethically wrong.
  9. Quotations that were made without making any changes must be shown in quotation mark as they are in the original source.
  10. It is necessary to avoid too frequent and too long quotations, as the researcher’s scientific competence may raise a question mark about synthesize or ability to write.
  11. The researchers may need to convey the information that retrieved from a source, in accordance with the general flow of the text, by expressing it and in some cases by summarizing it. Paraphrasing does not change the belonging of the information therefore, reference to the source is mandatory.
  12. It’s necessary to state that the text is a translation in quotations that translated from foreign language sources into Turkish.
  13. It should be noted that in cases where it is impossible to access the original source, the information is paraphrased from a secondary source.
  14. Even if the source has been cited, a whole or almost all of a work cannot be paraphrased in another study.
  15. It should be remembered that for all kinds of work (such as books, articles, technical drawings, pictures, charts, formulas, figures, etc.) that are subject to patents and copyrights, it may be necessary to obtain permission as well as the referencing.

 

QUOTATION

The expression of the information quoted from other sources is made without changing the original meaning. The information used in this way is called a quote. The quote is shown in quotation marks (‘‘ ’’) and after the quotation mark is closed, reference is made to the relevant source. It’s necessary to avoid quoting too often and too long. This situation disrupts the flow of the text, as well as would be sceptical about the researchers’ synthesis and writing skills.

 

PARAPHRASING

Paraphrasing is made by changing the original description of the information that is received from other sources. Information used in this way is called paraphrasing. Changing narration during paraphrase does not change its belonging. Here the information is still taken from another source.
In other words, belonging belongs to someone else and it is absolutely necessary to make citation referring to the source in the text to report the belonging. In general, researchers are expected to paraphrase information with their own expressions and styles instead of copying them as they are.
In some cases, it is appropriate to quote where the original narrative is short, nice or interesting and its modification will create a shift in the meaning.

General Rules on Quotation and Paraphrase

  1. All quotations are marked to clarify that they are quoted.
  2. Short quotations (less than 40 words or no more than 4 lines) are shown in quotation marks (‘‘ ’’). The words that are changed in order to adapt to the sentence structure are written in brackets.
  3. Quotations longer than 40 words or longer than 4 lines are written as a separate paragraph as 1 cm inside block. In this case, quotation marks are not used.
  4. Quotations must be correct in both content and format.
  5. The spelling and punctuation marks in the source text are not changed even if they are incorrect. In such cases, it may be preferable to paraphrase (quoting the meaning) instead of quoting directly. No changes can be made to the source text, words, spelling rules, etc. or cannot be updated unless it's completely certain that there is a typing or printing error.
  6. The quote that placed in a new context must keep its meaning in the source text. All changes (subtractions, additions, explanations, bold, italic or underscores, blending, quotes in the source text, etc.) are always displayed on the source text.
  7. Citations must be made directly from the original source, not from the "secondary source". However, indirect quoting may be necessary if the source text is not accessible. If indirect quotations are made, this is indicated by the phrase “as cited in’’ referring to it.
  8. Citations must be in accordance with the author's purpose. Sections that exceed the thought to be expressed or that are not related to the context are excluded from the quote.
  9. Extraction can be made in quotations provided that the meaning in the source text is preserved.
  10. In order to provide a necessary explanation or conformity to the sentence structure in the text, additions can be made to the source text. Added sections are shown with square brackets.
  11. Clarifications can be made in the citations in accordance with the request and purpose of the author. However, the clarification is indicated by a footnote that belongs to the author as in “bold / italic / underline’’ text.

CITATIONS/ REFERENCES

‘‘(Author Surname, date) approach’’ is used in citations. In the date approach, the author specifies the source “(Surname of the author, date of publication, page numbers on which the relevant information was obtained)” by opening a bracket in the text where the reference is intended (see example 1-13).

General Rules for Citations/ References:

  1. Author's surname, date of publication and page numbers are paraphrased in brackets.
  2. If the name of the author and the date is mentioned in the narration, they are not repeated in the brackets.
  3. Giving the page number in the citations is important in order to show exactly from where the information was taken from the relevant source. If the source used consists of a single page or if it is a source such as video, television program, sound recording, electronic source, which does not have a page numbers then the page number is not given in the references.
  4. In works with single and two authors, the surname of the author (s) is enclosed in parentheses (see example 1-2).
  5. When citing in the work with more than two authors, only the first author's surname is given and for other authors, “et al.” (et al.,) expression is used (see example 3).
  6. In the works written by legal entity, if the legal entity name is too long or if the abbreviated form is known too much, then the abbreviation can be used after the first reference. If it is decided to use an abbreviation, the full name of the institution is written in the first reference and the abbreviation is given in the square brackets next to it. For subsequent references, only the abbreviation is used (see example 4).
  7. If more than one work of an author is used, the date information is the separator item in the references. However, in order to distinguish the works of the same author published on the same date, small letters added next to the publication dates starting from "a" clarifies the work of the author (see example 5).
  8. If the works of two authors that have the same surnames are used, the first letters of their names as well as their surnames are mentioned in the reference (see example 6).
  9. When citing the sources that have entered the bibliography from the name of the work, the first word is given if the name of the work is long, and the whole word is given if it is short. If the cited source is a chapter of a book, the title of the article or the chapter of the book, then they are given in quotation marks (“ ”) and the source name (journal name, book title etc.) is given in italics font (see example 7-8). When abbreviating the name of work and source, ellipsis is used (see example 8).
  10. If the publication date of the work is not certain, “n.d.” which means that there is no date in the submission abbreviation is used (see example 9).
  11. If it is desired to cite more than one work at the same time, all is given in a single paranthesis, separated from each other with a semicolon. Alphabetical order is followed by author’s surname in parenthesis (see example 10).
  12. If multiple works of the same author are to be cited at the same time, the smallest to the largest date order is tracked without repeating the author (see example 11).
  13. Personal communication; It can be done by face to face interview, letter, electronically or by phone. Information about personal communication is not included in the bibliography due to the lack of accessibility for the reader; but only specified in the text (see example 12).
  14. In cases where it is impossible to access the original source, the information is paraphrased from the secondary source. It should be noted that when referring, the information is paraphrased from the secondary source. After mentioning the original source in the text, reference is made to the secondary source in a bracket from which the information was taken. In the bibliography, an entry is prepared for the secondary resource; the original source is not included in the bibliography (see example 13).

Citing / Referring Examples:

Single Author Work:

Example 1

(Kum, 1981, s. 87).

Work with Two Authors:

Example 2

(Köprülü and Günden, 1997, s. 164–165).

Work More than Two Authors:

Example 3

(Akkoyunlu et al., 1993, s. 221).

Work Written by a Legal Entity:

Example 4

First Reference:

(Türk Dil Kurumu [TDK], 1981, p. 19).

Second and Subsequent References:

(TDK, 1981, p. 26).

Works by the Same Author:

Example 5

(Uçak, 2003a, p. 198).

(Uçak, 2003b, p. 120).

Works of Two Authors with the same Surnames:

Example 6

(N. Tuncer, 2000, p. 206).

(Y. Tuncer, 1997, p. 33).

Work without an Author:

Example 7

(Kütüphaneciliğe Giriş[Introduction to Library Science], 1987).

Example 8

(“Sanal…”, 1995, p. 70).

Work without a Publication Date:

Example 9

(Inan, t.y., p. 2).

Referring to Multiple Works Simultaneously:

Example 10

(Artukoğlu, 1979, p. 6; Baydur, 1987, p. 18; Yılmaz, 2000, p. 48).

Example 11

(Çelik, 1998, p. 105; 1999, p. 126).

Interview:

Example 12

(N. Özyer ile kişisel iletşim [Personal communication with N.Özyer] 23 Haziran 2003).

Indirect Citation:

Example 13

(as cited in: Çakın, 1997, p. 7).

 

SOURCE TAG DESIGN

In the source tag, information is provided to the extent that it provides access to the resource used. Although this information varies according to the source type, it generally consists of information such as surname and name of the author, year of publication, name of the work, place of publication and Publisher.

 

BOOK

General rules

  1. In multi-author works, a comma is used between the author names, and the “and” conjunction between the names of the last two authors (see example 16).
  2. If the number of authors is more than six, the names of the first six authors are given in the source tag and the term of “et al.” is used after the sixth author. (See example 22).
  3. Author titles (Expert, Lecturer, Dr., Assoc. Prof., Prof., Dietitian, Physiotherapist, Engineer MSc etc.) are not included in the source tag.
  4. The title of the book is written in Italics, as it appears on the inner cover, including all subtitle and descriptive names (see examples 14 and 15). Book titles must comply with the spelling rules of the language in which they are written.
  5. If there is a publication information, it is given in brackets abbreviated and with numbers after the title of the book. First editions are not specified (see example 15).
  6. If there is more than one publication place, the first publication place is considered.
  7. The names of the Publishers are written unabbreviated.
  8. If the publication date cannot be found, the most recent copyright date is given.
  9. If the date information cannot be found in any way, “n.d.” which means “no date” abbreviation is used (see example 43).
  10. The term in the book is used to indicate the editor. In the source tag, after the name of the person who prepared the publication, the abbreviation (Prep.) is used instead of preparator(s), the abbreviation (Ed.) is used for the editor (s) if it is not abbreviated (see example 20).
  11. In translations, the name of the translator is specified after the name of the work. If necessary, the publication date of the original work can also be added in brackets at the end of the tag (see example 19).

Book - Single Author:

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Title of the Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example 14

Dökmeci, İ. (1988). Toksikoloji: Akut Zehirlenmelerde Tanı ve Tedavi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitapevi.

Example 15

Bozcuk, A. N. (2005). Genetik (2. bs.). Ankara: Palme Yayıncılık.

Book - With Multiple Authors:

Author Surname, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, Ç., Author, D., Author, E. et al., (Year of Publication). Title of the Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example 16

Akman, Y., Ketenoğlu, O., Güney, K., Kurt, L. ve Tuğ, G. M. (2004). Bitki Ekolojisi. Ankara: Palme Yayıncılık.

Book – Legal Entity Author:

Legal person. (Publication Year). Title of the Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example 17

TÜBİTAK. (2002). 21. Yüzyılda Bilimsel Yayıncılık: Hedefler ve Yaklaşımlar. Ankara: TÜBİTAK.

            Example 18

Türk Dil Kurumu. (2005). Türkçe Sözlük (10. bs.). Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu.

Book - Translation:

Author Surname, N. (Publication Year). The name of the Book (N. Surname, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher. (Publication Year of the Source Work).

Example 19

Jawetz, E., Melnick, J. ve Adelberg, A. E. (1976). Tıbbi Mikrobiyoloji (M. Akman ve E. Gülmezoğlu, Çev.). Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi (1972).

Chapter or Article in a Book:

Author Surname, N. (Publication Year). Publication Name. N. Editor (Ed.). Resource Name (p. Page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example 20

Şimşek, H. ve Öksüzoğlu, G. (1999). Akut Pankreatit. A. Kadayıfçı, Y. Karaaslan ve E. Köroğlu (Ed.). Acil Durumlarda Tanı ve Tedavi (s. 116–126). Ankara: Hekimler Yayın Birliği.

 

ARTICLE

General rules

  1. In case of more than one author, the surnames of all the authors are written first, a comma is used between the author names, and the “and” conjunction used between the names of the last two authors.
  2. If the number of authors is more than six, the surnames of the first six authors are given in the tag, the expression “et al.” is used after the sixth author (see example 22).
  3. Article names are written in accordance with the spelling rules of the language in which it is written. For example, words in Turkish article names begin with capital letters (see examples 21 and 22).
  4. If the author of the article is not certain, the entry is made from the article name (see example 25).
  5. Journal names are not abbreviated and are written in Italics.
  6. After the name of the journal, the volume number and number information of the journal are written. Some journals have only issue information, not volume information. In such cases, issue information is treated like volume information (see example 22).
  7. When giving page information, a hyphen (-) sign is placed between the page numbers where the article starts and ends. If the page numbers do not follow each other, a comma is put between them.
  8. Date information is given in brackets after the author's name. It is given as year in scientific journals, as month and year in magazines published monthly, and as day, month and year in magazines and newspapers published daily and weekly (see examples 21, 24, 26).
  9. It is not given in newspapers even if there is volume and issue information. A descriptive abbreviation is used before the page numbers (p. = Page) (see example 26).
  10. In the articles written in foreign language, Turkish translation can be given in square brackets after the original name of the article (see example 23).

 

Scientific Journal Article - Single Author:

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Article Name. Journal Name, volume (issue number), page numbers.

Example 21

Çakın, İ. (2004). Müteferrika Matbaası’nın Düşündürdükleri ve Avrupa’da Basımcılığın Etkileri. Bilgi Dünyası, 5(2), 153–167

Scientific Journal Article - With Multiple Authors:

Author Surname, A., Author Surname, B., Author Surname, C., Author Surname, D., Author Surname, E., Author Surname, F. et al., (Year of Publication). Article Name. Journal Name, volume (issue), page numbers.

Example 22

Erkan, S., Tuğrul, B., Üstün, E., Akman, B., Şendoğdu, M., Kargı, E. ve diğerleri. (2003). Okul Öncesi Öğretmenliği Öğrencilerine Ait Türkiye Profil Araştırması. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 23, 108–117.

Article in Foreign Language:

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Article Name [Article Name in Turkish]. Journal Name, volume (issue number), page numbers.

Example 23

Kurbanoğlu, S. S. (2003). Self–Efficacy: A Concept Closely Linked to Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning [Öz–Yeterlik: Bilgi Okuryazarlığı ve Yaşam Boyu Öğrenmeyle Yakından İlişkili Bir Kavram]. Journal of Documentation, 59, 635–646.

Popular Magazine Article – Known Author:

Author Surname, N. (Month Year). Article Name. Journal Name, volume, page numbers.

Example 24

Kenar, N. (Nisan 2006). Kayıt Dışı İstihdam. Popüler Yönetim, 9, 44–47

Popular Journal Article - Unknown Author:

Article Name. (Month year). Journal Name, volume, page numbers.

Example 25

Yerel Bilginin Küreselleştirilmesi. (Nisan 2006). Focus, 12, 14–17.                  

Newspaper Article:

Author Surname, N. (Day Month Year). Article Name. Newspaper Name, page numbers.

Example 26

Bayar, Y. (04 Nisan 2006). İnsanlık Aptallaşıyor mu? Hürriyet, s. 14. 32

 

OTHER PRINTED RESOURCES

General rules

  1. Although the information that supposed to be included in the source tag varies depending on the type of source, it is largely similar to the book tag.
  2. Proceedings books are considered as books, and a proclamation from the proceedings book is considered as a book chapter (see example 27).
  3. If only the abstract of the paper is published, the [summary] description is written in brackets after the name of the paper.
  4. In the tags of unpublished proceedings and posters, the source is stated as a proceeding or poster (see examples 28 and 29).
  5. In patents, the inventor is considered as the author, as the date information is written in the year the patent was published (see example 30). If the inventor is unknown, the patent holder is given instead.
  6. Following the invention name information, the patent number is indicated with the country name (see example 30). However, the patents issued by the "World Intellectual Property Organization" use "international" instead of the country name, and "Europe" for the European patent.
  7. If a certain part of the resource has been used in reference sources such as encyclopaedia, dictionary, biography, this part is considered as a chapter in the book (see example 32).
  8. If the author of the articles is not certain in the sources of the consultation, the entry is made from the name of the article.
  9. If there is a report number in the reports, it is indicated in brackets after the report name (see example 33).
  10. In theses, the name of the thesis is written in Italics. After the name of the thesis, the terms "master thesis", "doctoral thesis" or "proficiency in art thesis" are used. The name and location of the university where the degree is awarded follows this information (see example 34).
  11. The sources enter the bibliography with the name of the work and begin with the number are listed alphabetically according to the reading of the number (see example 36).
  12. Source tag entry in the laws and regulations is made from the name of the law. After the name of the law, the date of acceptance of the law (only in years) is indicated in the bracket, and at the end of the tag, the date (day, month, and year) of the source of the law is given (see examples 35 and 36).

 

Proceeding – Published

Author Surname, N. (Year of publication). Proceeding Name. A. Editor (Ed.). Book Name (s. page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

                       Example 27

Uçak, N. (2005). Sosyal Bilimlerde Bilginin Üretimi. O. Horata (Haz.). Sosyal Bilimlerde Süreli Yayınlar ve Bilgi Teknolojileri Sempozyumu: 2 Nisan 2005 – Ankara: Bildiriler (s. 92–103). Ankara: Yeni Avrasya.

Proceeding– Unpublished

Spokesperson Surname, N. (Month Year). Proceeding Name [Proceeding]. Meeting Name, Meeting Place.

                       Example 28

Tonta, Y. (Şubat 2006). Bilgi Yönetiminde Son Gelişmeler: Amazoogle, İşbirliği ve Açık Erişim [Bildiri], Akademik Bilişim ’06, Gaziantep.

Poster

Author Surname, N. (Month Year). Poster Name [Poster]. Meeting Name, Meeting Place.

                       Example 29

Önal, İ. (Ağustos 2002). Historical perspectives on school librarianship [Poster]. 68th IFLA General Conference and Council, Glasgow.

Patent

Inventor Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Invention Name, Country Patent no. Place of publication: Publisher.

                       Example 30

Kavur, K. H. (2006). Heart Flowerpot, U.S. Patent No. D518,755. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Reference Books – Dictionary

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Work Name. Place of Publication: Publisher.

                       Example 31

Altan, N. (2003). Bilgisayar Terimleri Ansiklopedik Sözlüğü. (3. bs.). Ankara: Sistem Yayıncılık.

Reference Books – Encyclopedia Article

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Article Name. Work Name (v. volume number, p. page number). Place of publication: Publisher.

                       Example 32

Ersoy, O. (1973). Kağıt ve Kağıtçılık. Türk Ansiklopedisi (c. 21, s. 112–115). Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı.

Report

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Report Name (Report No:). Place of Publication: Publisher/ Preparer Organization.

                       Example 33

Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı. (2004). Devlet Yardımlarını Değerlendirme Özel İhtisas Komisyonu Raporu (Rapor No: DPT: 2681). Ankara: Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı.

Thesis

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Thesis Name. Master’s /Doctoral/Proficiency in art thesis, University Name, Place.

                       Example 34

Şengün, N. (2018). Antik Çağ’da Akdeniz ve Kıbrıs’taki Beslenme ve Mutfak Kültürü. Yüksek lisans tezi, Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Gazimağusa

Laws and Regulations

Name of the law. (Year Approved). Publication Name, Volume, Day Month Year.

                       Example 35

                       İlköğretim ve Eğitim Kanunu. (1961). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 10705, 12 Ocak 1961.

                       Example 36

5846 Sayılı Fikir ve Sanat Yapıtları Kanununun Bazı Maddelerinin Değiştirilmesine İlişkin Kanun. (1995). T.C. Resmi Gazete, 22311, 12 Haziran 1995.

 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

General Rules

  1. Besides the basic information, the access date and the access address are given in tags.
  2. The basic rules applied to printed resources are also applied to electronic sources. For example, if the electronic document/resource does not have an author, entry is made from the name of the work (see example 43). If there is no information regarding the date, “n.d” abbreviation is used and it means no date (see example 39).
  3. Publication place and Publisher information generally goes for electronic sources. If specified on the resource, this information is added to the tags according to the rules applicable for the printed resources (see example 37).
  4. Unlike the printed resources, besides the publication date, the access date should be specified in electronic resources. Access date information is given in detail, including day, month, and year (see examples 39-45).
  5. In electronic resources, the last update date is taken as the publication date.
  6. Network addresses are not given underlined.
  7. When it is required to divide the network addresses into two lines in tags, the hyphen (-) is not used because it can give the impression that it is about the address so a splitting is made from a suitable place and no full stop is put at the end of the address (see examples 39 and 42).

Electronic Resource – Electronic Edition of a Published Book

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Book Name [Electronic Edition]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

                       Example 37

Başar, H. (1999). Sınıf Yönetimi [Elektronik Sürüm]. İstanbul: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı.

Electronic Resource – Electronic Edition of a Published Article

Author Surname, A., Author Surname, B. and Author Surname, C. (Year of Publication). Article Name [Electronic Edition]. Name of the Journal, volume (issue), page numbers.

                       Example 38

Akman–Demir, G., Yeşilot, N. ve Serdaroğlu, P. (2006). Neurological involvement in Behçet’s Disease: clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment [Elektronik Sürüm]. Journal of Neurological Sciences (Turkish), 23(1), 3–7.

Electronic Resource – Article

Author Surname, A., Author Surname, B. and Author Surname, C. (Year of Publication). Title of the Article. Name of the Journal, volume (issue), page numbers. Access: Day Month Year, http://network address

                       Example 39

Yıldırım, A., Ekici, K. M. ve Şahım, T. (t.y.). İşletmelerin Yönetim Sürecinde Sinerjik Yönetim Anlayışının Önemi. Bilgi Vadisi, 1(2). Erişim: 04 Nisan 2006, http://www.bilgivadisi.net/idas/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86&Itemid=59

Electronic Resource – Academic Article or Article

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Name of the Article. Name of the Journal, volume (issue), page numbers. Access: Day Month Year, Database Name, Registry/Article No./DOI No

Example 40

Coşkun, T., Bozoklu, S., Özenç A. ve Özdemir, A. (1998). Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Permeability of the Main Pancreatic Duct and Morphology of the Pancreas. The American Journal of Surgery, 176(1), 53–58. Erişim: 29 Mayıs 2020, ScienceDirect, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9610(98)00096-8

Article Name. (Year of Publication). Access: Day Month Year, Database Name, Registry/Article No./DOI No

                       Example 41

Bahcet’s Syndrome. (2006). Erişim: 03 Nisan 2006, Health and Wellness Resource Center, Kayıt No: DU2601001514.

Electronic Resource – Report

Author Surname, N. (Month Year). Report Name (Report No). Access: Day Month Year, http://network address

                       Example 42

Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı. (Temmuz 2004). e–Dönüşüm Türkiye Projesi Kısa Dönem Eylem Planı:Değerlendirme Raporu (Rapor No: 2). Erişim: 02 Nisan 2006, http://212.175.33.22/kdep/rapor/ KDEPHaziran2004.pdf

 

Electronic Resource – Anonymous Webpage

Resource Name. (n.d.). Access: Day Month Year, http://network address

                       Example 43

Bilim Etiği ve Bilimde Sahtekarlık. (n.d.). Access: 04 April 2006, http://www.aek.yildiz.edu.tr/bilim.htm

Electronic Resource – Webpage Reached from a Website

Author Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Page Name. Access: Day Month Year, Network Site Name: http://network address

                       Example 44

Gordon, C. H., Simmons, P. ve Wynn, G. (2001). What It is, and How to Avoid It. Erişim: 04 Nisan 2006, University of British Columbia Ağ Sitesi: http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/bpg/Advising/ Plagiarism.htm

Electronic Resource – Website

Name of the Site or Published Organization. (Year of Publication). Access: Day Month Year, http://network address

                       Example 45

Tema Vakfı. (t.y.). Erişim: 04 Nisan 2006, http://www.tema.org.tr

Electronic Resource – News, Discussion or a Forum Message

Author Surname, N. (Day Month Year). Message Topic [Message No]. Access: Name of News/Discussion Group/Forum, http://network address

                       Example 46

Işık, E. (5 Kasım 2003). Bitki Kütüphanesi [İleti No: 8]. Erişim: Kutup–L, http://listproc.metu.edu.tr.9000/reguser/archives/KUTUPL/kutupl.log200311/msg00008.html

 

INTERVIEWS

Personal interviews such as face-to-face communications, letters, e-mails, phone calls are not included in the bibliography since they are not publicly available resources. Interviews are only referenced in the text.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ORDER

Bibliography is a list of sources used in a work. All the resources used in the research must be included in the bibliography. It is important that the bibliography contains complete and accurate information since one of the main purposes of citing the source is to enable the reader to reach the relevant sources. Bibliography is in alphabetical order. The tags are written 1 cm inside after the first line.

  1. If the bibliography contains more than one work of the same author, the works are sorted from old to new according to the year of the publication.
  2. If the publication dates of two different works of the same author are the same, the order in the bibliography is made according to the title of the next item in the tag. In order to ensure the distinction between citations, letters starting from “a” are added next to the date information.
  3. The single author works of the same author are listed before their multi-author works.
  4. If the first authors of two multi-author works are the same, the surname of the second author is indicator but if the second writers are the same as well, the surname of the third author is indicator in alphabetical order.
  5. The works of two different authors with the same surname are written in alphabetical order according to their names.
  6. If the author is a legal entity, the work is included in the alphabetical list with the name of the legal entity.
  7. If a work does not have an author or an editor, the tag will be prepared according to the work name and the source will be included in the alphabetical list with the work name. If the work name starts with a number, reading of the number is taken into account in the ordering.

 

 

Other Unethical Situations in Scientific Publications and Research

Unfair Authorship Including people who have no active contribution among the authors (Honorary Authorship – Gift Authorship and Nepotism…); changing author’s order without justification inappropriately; removing the names of the people who have active contribution from the work during the publication or from the subsequent editions; including the name of someone who has no active contribution among the other authors by exerting an influence (COPE, 2020; TÜBİTAK, 2010; YÖK, 2016). Not including the people who have active contribution among the authors (Ghost Authorship – Hidden Authorship) (Barbour, 2010; Ngai et al., 2005); making someone to write an article/book/thesis, etc. for free/for a fee is considered as a Ghost Authorship too. Names of these people neither encountered among the authors nor among the people who have been thanked. This is the act of writing that is completely separated from the authorship requirements (Ngai et al., 2005).
 Paraphrase Changing someone’s opinions and use and present them as their own opinions. (COPE, 2020; TÜBİTAK, 2010; YÖK, 2016).
Disrespect of Intellectual Property Rights Not to comply with the intellectual property rights (COPE, 2020; TÜBİTAK, 2010; YÖK, 2016).
 Fabrication Creating data that is not based on the research; editing or changing a presented/published work by basing it on false data; reporting or publish them, showing an unaccomplished work as if it was accomplished (COPE, 2020; TÜBİTAK, 2010; YÖK, 2016).
 Falsification Falsifying the research records and obtained data, showing the methods, devices and materials that they have not used in the study as if they were used; not evaluating the data which is not proper for the research hypothesis; making changes on data and/or results in order to make them suitable for related theory or assumptions; falsifying or reconfigure the research results in accordance with the interests of the people or organizations that have made contributions (COPE, 2020; TÜBİTAK, 2010; YÖK, 2016).
Biased Selection of a Literature Review Not to use/give the supportive or opposing sources related to the study; the fact that the authors only show the sources supporting their own results and do not give the opposing studies as sources is the biased selection of literature review and it is a biased study. (COPE, 2020; Ruacan, 2005).
Duplication Sending and/or publishing multiple works containing the same research and/or the same research results to more than one publication/publisher for publication (COPE, 2020; TÜBİTAK, 2010; YÖK, 2016). Publishing the same work in different languages is also included in this group (Ruacan, 2005).
Publishing by Splitting (Salamization) Publishing the results of a research by splitting them into parts inappropriately as if they were separate works without citing and publishing them as different articles (COPE, 2020; TÜBİTAK, 2010; YÖK 2016).
Biased Publication / looking out for self-interest Failure to carry out and complete a study in scientific neutrality and looking out for self-interest by the researches in cases that the research is supported by commercial companies/interest groups (pecuniary advantage, facilities for the presentation of the study in the country or abroad, assistance for the preparation of presentation/publication of the results, contributions to departments, laboratories, associations, etc.) (Ruacan, 2005).
Other types of ethics violations Not to indicate the people, institution or organizations that provided support in publications of researches carried out with support, not to clearly state their contribution in the research, not to comply with the ethical rules in human and animal studies, not to show respect to the patient rights in publications, to share the information included in a work with others as a reader before the publication, to misuse the sources, places, opportunities and devices provided for the research, and to make completely groundless, inappropriate and intentional accusations ethics violations (İAÜ, t.y)

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

APA. (2017). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Erişim: 28 Mayıs 2020, American Psychological Association Ağ Sitesi: https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/?_ga=2.32577534.1571244768.1590958308-916150035.1590696705

APA. (2020). APA Style. Erişim:28 Mayıs 2020, American Psychological Association Ağ Sitesi: https://apastyle.apa.org/

Barbour, V. (2010). How Ghost-Writing Threatens the Credibility of Medical Knowledge and Medical Journals [Elektronik Sürüm]. Haematologica, 95(1), 1-2. Erişim: 29 Mayıs 2020, doi: 10.3324/haematol.2009.017426

COPE-Committee on Publication Ethics. (2020). Committee on Publication Ethics Guidelines on Good Publication Practice. Erişim: 28 Mayıs 2020, https://publicationethics.org/guidance

Gerçek, H., Güven, M. H., Özdamar, Ş. O., Yelken, T. Y. &  Korkmaz, T. (2011). Yükseköğretim kurumlarında etik ilkeler, sorumluluklar ve davranış kuralları. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi, 1(2), 80–88.

Gören, N. (t. y.). Bilimsel Yayınlar Hakkında. Erişim: 28 Mayıs 2020, http://www.etikturkiye.com/makale/detay.asp?id=35

İAÜ. (t.y.). İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi İntihali Önleme Rehberi. [İstanbul]: [İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi].

Ngai, S., Gold, J. L., Gill, S. S., ve Rochon, P. A. (2005). Haunted Manuscripts: Ghost Authorship in the Medical Literature [Elektronik Sürüm]. Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance, 12(2),  103-114. Erişim: 28 Mayıs 2020, https://doi.org/10.1080/08989620590957175

Ruacan, Ş. (2005). Bilimsel araştırma ve yayınlarda etik ilkeler [Elektronik Sürüm]. Gazi Tıp Dergisi, 16(4), 147-149. Erişim: 28 Mayıs 2020, medicaljournal.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/GMJ/article/ download/248/246

Tez Yazım Kılavuzu. (2004). Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi, Ankara Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yayınları, No:2

Tez Yazım Kılavuzu ve Bilim Etiği Uygulamaları El Kitabı. (2006). Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Basımevi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi

Töreci, K. (2010). Tıpta Yayın Etiği: Bizden de örneklerle [Elektronik Sürüm]. ANKEM Dergisi, 24 (Sayı 1’e özel ek). Erişim: 29 Mayıs 2020, http://www.ankemdernegi.org.tr/ANKEMJOURNALPDF/ANKEM_24_EK1_1.pdf

TÜBİTAK. (2010). Araştırma ve Yayın Etiği Kurulu Yönetmeliği, 04/09/2010 tarihli ve 189 sayılı Toplantı 15 Ekim 2010. Erişim: 28 Mayıs 2020, http://www.tubitak.gov.tr/tubitak_content_files/mevzuat/yonetmelik/ YONETMELIK_III_9.pdf

YÖK. (2016). Yükseköğretim Kurumu Bilimsel Araştırma ve Yayın Etiği Yönergesi, 10 Mayıs 2016. Erişim: 28 Mayıs 2020, https://www.yok.gov.tr/Documents/Mevzuat/yuksekogretim_kurumlari_bilimsel_arastirma_ve_yayin_etigi_yonergesi.pdf